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文章來源:   發布時間:2019-04-29  【字號:     】  

  形成脂肪組織的細胞來源

  據新的研究披露,研究人員發現了幾組新的會產生脂肪組織的多能祖細胞,它們中有些駐留在新近發現的解剖微環境中。這些結果或能為研發促進健康脂肪生長及預防代謝疾病的靶向技術提供信息。

  白色脂肪組織是一種基本的脂肪組織,它能通過儲存多余熱卡并防止脂肪滴在非脂肪組織中積聚(這會產生損傷效應),因而在代謝健康中起著關鍵作用。先前研究顯示,脂肪組織會以兩種方式生長:脂肪細胞或是增加數目或是增加體積,后者是一種已知的造成代謝性疾病的因素。因此,代謝健康以及代謝疾病的驅動因子主要依賴于脂肪組織祖細胞(APCs)成為發育完全的成熟脂肪細胞的能力,但脂肪細胞的形成及生成它們的APCs的細胞機制仍然難以捉摸。

  David Merrick和同事用單細胞RNA測序對祖細胞進行識別與分析,這些細胞來自幼年小鼠快速發育的白色脂肪組織。Merrick等人確認了3種新的APCs,后者受到肥胖的調控并在人體中得到保存。進一步的分析發現了2個APC群體,它們存在于人類的皮下白色脂肪組織中。這些結果表明,在小鼠和人體中發現了一個脂肪生成的通行范式。新確認的APC組之一可在網狀間質中被發現,這種新的、研究不足的區域是一個充滿液體的空間,它包圍著許多器官并可能在組織的再生和修復中起著重要的作用。You-Ying Chau 和William Cawthron在相關文章中對這些研究的局限性及結果進行了更為詳細的討論。

  相關論文信息:DOI:10.1126/science.aax2967

  有效除冰的新材料

  據新的研究報告,降低冰與表面間的韌性而非強度是研發高度疏冰材料的關鍵。在諸如風力機葉片、輸電線或飛機機翼等大型表面上的冰積聚會引發災難性故障。

  一般而言,現有大多數除冰材料聚焦于將冰與表面間的黏附強度降至最低。然而,冰與表面分離所需的力量會隨著結冰表面面積的變大而增加。同樣,將冰從特大表面分離可能需要過高強度的力量,從而限制對這些疏冰涂層的使用,同時可能需要昂貴且對環境不安全的過程。了解分界面冰附著的一個補償性視角則是基于韌性(對眾多小型力量的阻抗)而非強度(對大型力量的阻抗)。

  Kevin Golovin和同事將強度限制性除冰與韌性限制性除冰進行了比較。據作者披露,對用低界面韌性(LIT)設計的材料而言,除冰已不再作為冰覆蓋函數而受到限制。Golovin等評估了用LIT設計的各種塑膠與橡膠涂層的除冰性能,展示了冰覆蓋大面積所需力量的大幅減少。此外,這些結果證明,用低界面韌性所制造的PDMS(一種常用的基于橡膠的疏冰涂層)能令冰僅用自身的重量就能干凈徹底地與大面積表面分離。

  相關論文信息:DOI:10.1126/science.aav1266

  冰川后退速度將放緩

  南極冰蓋與其下方固態大地相互作用方式的成因顯示,在這一主要的冰凍構造處的冰蓋垮塌事件或能被延遲數十年之久。具體而言,在這一所謂的“接地線”發生的相互作用或能減緩這一地區最大的冰川——特懷特冰川的后退。

  新近對西部南極冰蓋(WAIS)的研究顯示,該冰蓋區域出人意料的迅速反彈或對穩定WAIS以阻止發生災難性垮塌有幫助。這是因為隨著冰川后退,地殼會向上反彈,從而制造了相對于冰川漂浮點而成為冰架(接地線)的海床幾何改變,這一過程可阻止冰川的穩態后撤而令其擱淺。到目前為止,人們一直用這一過程的數值模型模擬來對其在相對較大的空間尺度上進行評估。

  Eric Larour和同事以較精細的分辨率聚焦于冰川后退與固態大地間互動過程的反饋,他們用特懷特與派恩島冰川接地線作為個案研究。與不納入精細尺度反饋的場景相比,他們在某個用模型模擬的敏感性實驗中發現,到2350年時,源自特懷特冰川的接地線后退幅度會減少約四成。特懷特冰川對海平面上升促成作用的降幅也會超過25%。

  相關論文信息:DOI:10.1126/science.aav7908




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